C. chinense is a native plant to Central America, also the Yucatan region, and is most common to the  Caribbean islands. In warm climates the plants are perennial and will survive for several years, but in cooler climates C. chinense will not usually survive the winter months. However, it can be readily germinate from the previous seasons seed in the following growing season.
C. chinense group is the home to the hottest chilli peppers on the planet.
Capsicum chinense